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La acreditación una excusa para el cambio educativo

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Jueves, 19 Julio 2012 05:39

La acreditación una excusa para el cambio educativo

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(1 Votar)

Por: Roberto Barrientos Mollo
Secretario del Consejo Directivo del GICES

Diversos expertos en cambio educativo (Darling-Hammond, 2009; Fullan, 2009; Hargreaves, 2009) mencionan que la presión y el apoyo deben ir de la mano en procesos de mejora. Es decir, es necesaria una sana presión y ofrecer las condiciones y el soporte necesario para que las instituciones logren lo esperado. Las personas e instituciones cambian cuando pueden, deben y quieren hacerlo. Preguntémonos entonces ¿A quién le corresponde realizar las acciones y estrategias encaminadas a desarrollar el soporte, esto es, el desarrollo las capacidades de cada institución para autoevaluarse? Puesto que la autoevaluación es un tema nuevo en nuestro país, lo que implica el desarrollo de nuevas capacidades, nuevas habilidades y nuevas motivaciones.

Recordemos que uno de los supuestos de los procesos de autoevaluación es que no solo las personas son unidad de cambio sino también las organizaciones. Por lo que se debe desarrollar capacidades en los individuos y en las organizaciones ¿Le corresponde realizar dicha capacitación al SINEACE? Si revisamos la normativa, no le corresponde. Entonces le corresponde al ente ejecutivo encargado de ofrecer el soporte para el desarrollo de nuevas capacidades en la educación básica y técnico-profesional, El Ministerio de Educación. En el caso de las universidades a sus autoridades, dada su autonomía. Recordemos, que muchas veces, lo que parece resistencia al cambio es en realizad ausencia de condiciones y soporte necesario para realizarlo.

Así mismo para que una propuesta de cambio a nivel nacional tenga éxito se debe eliminar la falsa dicotomía entre reforma tipo “top-down” (arriba-abajo) versus propuestas tipo “bottom up” (abajo arriba). Apostar solamente por un esfuerzo de tipo “top-down” tiene la debilidad de no haber sido construida por todas las personas, por lo que las bases critican que ha sido impuesta pudiendo boicotearla o hacer hace caso omiso de la misma. En cambio las propuestas de tipo bottom-up tienen la debilidad de no generar un sentido de dirección como país, puesto que al generar múltiples las iniciativas se enfoca en muchas direcciones hasta generar un tipo de anarquía. Entonces la clave está en generar propuestas que eviten esa falsa dicotomía. Se requiere una combinación que genere la consigna “nosotros” (we-we)(Fullan, 2008). En la que la propuesta no es de “ellos” sino de todos nosotros. La desalienación en el sistema es aún grande, pese a los loables esfuerzos de muchos líderes. Por lo que el trabajo de los impulsores de la reforma es hacer que todos se apropien de la iniciativa. El estado debe ofrecer la dirección desde arriba y las bases deber ir empoderándose de la misma.

Aplicando estas ideas al caso del proceso de acreditación descubrimos que viene a ser un tipo de cambio o fuerza de cambio propuesto desde arriba. Esto es, el SINEACE por medio de sus órganos operadores genera unos modelos de calidad, debidamente validados, al cual deben amoldarse las instituciones educativas de los diversos niveles. Por lo que resulta un esfuerzo de tipo Top-down.

Si es que se quiere que la fuerza de cambio del sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad en nuestro país tenga éxito debe complementarse con esfuerzos de tipo bottom-up. En el caso de los procesos de acreditación es deber del estado generar iniciativas para que la población se empodere de la propuesta; asimismo, es deber de las diversas asociaciones de la sociedad civil impulsar el desarrollo de una conciencia colectiva de exigir calidad.

En este punto, cabe recordar que toda nueva solución trae nuevos problemas. Es decir, no existen soluciones puras, tenemos que estar preparados para los posibles problemas que pueda traer y sopesar que el remedio no sea peor que la enfermedad. En el caso de la acreditación los efectos son más positivos; pero se debe generar espacios para que los diversos actores descubran que es un espacio para el cambio, una excusa para el mismo. Y no caer en los potenciales nuevos problemas como el realizar una simulación y quedarse en un simple papeleo, cumpliendo solo con evidencias y sin cambiar la cultura organizacional.

Por lo que toca a todos nosotros, sociedad civil y líderes educativos, renovar nuestro impulso y la energía que lleve a desarrollar diversas iniciativas para apoyar el proceso de aseguramiento de la calidad del SINEACE. El SINEACE “solo” no va a poder desarrollar una cultura de rendición de cuentas, de evaluación y cultura de la mejora continua. Es trabajo de todos los que creemos en la educación como llave del cambio ¿Qué estamos haciendo para hacer eco de las acciones que desarrollan los órganos operadores? ¿Qué estamos haciendo para pedir a los mismos que rindan cuentas que lo que están trabajando? ¿Qué otras iniciativas estamos realizando para apoyar, desde el externo, los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad? Espero que estas preguntas sirvan para la reflexión y autoevaluación personal.

Referencias:

  • Darling-Hammond, L. (2009). Teaching and the change wars: The professionalism hypothesis. In A. Hargreaves & M. Fullan (Eds.), Change Wars. Bloominghton: Solution Three.
  • Fullan, M. (2008). The Six Secrets of Change What the Best Leaders Do to Help Their Organizations Survive and Thrive: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Fullan, M. (2009). Have theory, will travel: A Theory of action for system change. In A. Hargreaves & M. Fullan (Eds.), Change Wars. Bloominghton: Solution Three.
  • Hargreaves, A. (2009). The Fourth Way of Change: Towards an Age of Inspiration and Sustainability. In A. Hargreaves & M. Fullan (Eds.), Change Wars. Bloominghton: Solution Three.
Leer 1862 veces Modificado por última vez en Lunes, 23 Julio 2012 16:12